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Tel Aviv-Yafo (Template:Lang-he-n)[2] (usually Tel Aviv) is the second largest city in Israel, with a population of 384,600.[1] Tel Aviv is situated on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, covering Template:Convert. It is the largest and most populous city in the Israeli metropolitan area known as Gush Dan, home to 3.15 million people as of 2007.[3] Although it is less than a century old, Tel Aviv is recognized as a strong candidate global city with strong evidence of world city formation. Tel Aviv is known as "the city that never sleeps" because of its nightlife and 24-hour culture.[4][5] The city is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo municipality, headed by Ron Huldai.[6]

Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 on the outskirts of Jaffa (Template:Lang-he, Yafo), believed to be the oldest port in the world. The growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffa, which was largely Arab at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel. Tel Aviv was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 due to its large collection of Bauhaus buildings, the largest concentration in the world.[7][8] The "White City", as it came to be known, was designed by German Jewish architects who fled Nazi Germany and covers an area in the north of the city.[9] Tel Aviv is Israel's economic hub, the home of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and many corporate offices and research and development centers.[10] Its beaches, cafes, upscale shopping and secular lifestyle have made it a magnet for tourism. Tel Aviv is the country's cultural capital, and as such is a center of music, theater and the arts.[11]

Etymology

The name Tel Aviv (literally "Hill of Spring") was chosen in 1910 out of many suggestions, among them "Herzliya". Tel Aviv was the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's book Altneuland ("Old New Land"), translated from the German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow took the name from the Book of Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, and to where they lived; and I sat there overwhelmed among them seven days."[12] This name was found fitting as it embraced the idea of the renaissance of the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, and tel is an archeological site that reveals layers of civilization built one over the other.[13]

Theories vary about the etymology of Jaffa or Yafo in Hebrew. Some theorists believe that the name derives from yafah or yofi, Hebrew for "beautiful" or "beauty". Another tradition is that Japheth, son of Noah, founded the city and that it was named for him. The city of Jaffa is mentioned in the Book of Jonah, and an Egyptian clay tablet discovered at Tel el-Amarna, believed to be a tax register, is inscribed with the name "Japo".[14][15]

History

Jaffa

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Jaffa has been a fortified port town for at least 4,000 years and is believed to be the oldest port in the world.[16] The city is first mentioned in letters from 1470 BCE that record its conquest by Egyptian Pharaoh, Thutmose III.[9] In the Bible, Jaffa is the city where the prophet Jonah set sail for Tarshish and was swallowed by a great fish.[17] In the Book of Joshua Jaffa is described as bordering on the territory of the Tribe of Dan.[18] The city has since changed hands more than 20 times and was destroyed by the Mamelukes in 1345. In the 16th century, Jaffa fell under Ottoman rule and was destroyed by Napoleon in 1799.[9]

During the mid-19th century, the city experienced great prosperity via trade with Europe, especially in silk and Jaffa oranges.[9] Since it was the gateway to Jerusalem, many immigrants passed through the city but most settled in Jerusalem.[9] In 1860, the small Sephardic community in Jaffa was joined by Jews from Morocco and small numbers of European Ashkenazi Jews.[9] In the 1870s, the old city walls were razed to allow for expansion.[19] By 1882 Jaffa’s Jews numbered more than 1,500; meanwhile, the total population of the town grew from 2,500 in 1806 to 17,000 in 1886.[9]

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During the 1880s, Ashkenazi immigration to Jaffa increased with the onset of the First Aliyah. These immigrants were motivated by Zionism more than religion. They came to farm the land and engage in productive labor.[9] In keeping with their pioneer ideology, some chose to settle in the sand dunes north of Jaffa.[9] The neighborhood of Neve Tzedek was founded in 1887, and Neve Shalom, in 1897.[9]

Ahuzat Bayit

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The Second Aliyah brought further expansion to the Jewish community of Jaffa.[9] A group of middle-class Jews, some from Jaffa, founded a society in 1906 to build a new Jewish garden suburb on the outskirts of Jaffa.[20] Arthur Ruppin, a member of the group, envisioned the new town as a “Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene”.[9] In 1908 the group took the name Ahuzat Bayit Template:Nowrap, and purchased Template:Convert of dunes northeast of Jaffa which were divided into 60 plots. One of the members of Ahuzat Bayit was Meir Dizengoff, who became head of the local council in 1911, and later, Tel Aviv's first mayor.[21][22] Dizengoff's vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with the Arabs.[9]

Nahalat Binyamin

Building started on 11 April 1909, after creation of a second housing association, Nahalat Binyamin, when group members held a picnic and lottery to split the plots among them.[23][9] At this time, the Ahuzat Bayit association admitted members of two suburbs previously established nearby.[24] Within a year of the start of construction, Herzl, Ahad Ha‘am, Judah Halevi, Lilienblum, and Rothschild Streets had been laid out and had pipes for water, and the 66 houses (including some on six subdivided plots) had been completed.[23] At the end of Herzl Street, a plot was allocated for a new building for the Herzliya Hebrew High School, founded in Jaffa in 1906.[23] On May 21 1910, the name Tel Aviv was adopted.[25][23] Tel Aviv was planned as a European-style garden suburb of Jaffa, with wide streets and boulevards.[26]

Expulsion of Jews

By 1914, Tel Aviv had grown to include more than Template:Convert, including several new neighborhoods.[23] However, growth halted in 1917 when the Ottoman authorities expelled the Jews of Jaffa.[23] A report published in The New York Times by United States Consul Garrels in Alexandria, Egypt described the Jaffa deportation of early April 1917.[27]The orders of evacuation were aimed chiefly at the Jewish population. Muslims and Christians who had permits were allowed to remain. On April 1, 1917, on the orders of Jemal Pasha, the Jews were ordered to leave the country within 48 hours. Seven thousand Jews were evicted from their homes, which were looted by the Arab residents. No property was allowed to be taken with them, and two Jews were hanged on the outskirts of Tel Aviv as an example to anyone who considered resistance. Many Jews were found murdered in the orchards.[27]

Under the British Mandate

Under British administration, the political friction between Jews and Arabs in Palestine increased. On May 1 1921, the Jaffa Riots erupted and an Arab mob killed dozens of Jewish residents. In the wake of this violence, many Jews left Jaffa for Tel Aviv, bringing the population of Tel Aviv to 35,000 by 1924.[1] New businesses opened in Tel Aviv, leading to the decline of Jaffa as a commercial center.[23] In 1925, Patrick Geddes drew up a master plan for Tel Aviv, which was adopted by the city council led by Meir Dizengoff.[9]

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Tel Aviv continued to grow in 1926 but suffered an economic setback in 1927–30.[23][9] At the same time, cultural life was given a boost by the establishment of the Ohel Theater and the decision of Habima Theatre to make Tel Aviv its permanent base in 1931.[23] Tel Aviv gained municipal status in 1934.[23]

The population rose dramatically during the Fifth Aliyah when the Nazis came to power in Germany.[23] As the Jews fled Europe, many settled in Tel Aviv, bringing the population in 1937 to 150,000, compared to Jaffa's 69,000 residents. Within two years, it had reached 160,000, which was over a third of the country's total Jewish population.[23] Many new immigrants remained after disembarking in Jaffa, turning the city into a center of urban life. In the wake of the 1936–39 Arab rioting, a local port independent of Jaffa was built in 1938, and Lod Airport (later Ben Gurion Airport) and Sde Dov Airport opened between 1937 and 1938.[9]

Tel Aviv's White City, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, emerged in the 1930s. Many of the German Jewish architects trained at the Bauhaus, the Modernist school of architecture closed by the Nazis in 1933, fled Germany. Some came to Palestine and adapted the architectural outlook of the Bauhaus school to local conditions, creating the largest concentration of buildings in the International Style in the world. [9]

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According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan that proposed dividing Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, Tel Aviv, by then a city of 230,000, was slated for inclusion in the Jewish state. Jaffa was designated as part of the Arab state. The Arabs, however, rejected the partition plan. [9] Between 1947 and 1948, tensions grew on the border between Tel Aviv and Jaffa, with Arab snipers firing at Jews from the minaret of the local mosque. The Haganah and Irgun retaliated with a seige on Jaffa.[9] From April 1948, the Arab residents began to leave. When Jaffa was conquered by Israeli forces on May 14, few remained.[9]

After Israeli independence

By the time of Israel's Declaration of Independence on May 14 1948, the population of Tel Aviv had risen to more than 200,000.[1] Throughout the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Tel Aviv served as Israel's temporary capital because of the Arab blockade of Jerusalem, which was named the capital in December 1949.[28] Because of the international dispute over the status of Jerusalem, most foreign embassies stayed in or near Tel Aviv. In the early 1980s, 13 more returned there as part of the UN's punitive measures responding to Israel's 1980 Jerusalem Law.[29][30] Today, all but two of the international embassies to Israel are in Tel Aviv or the surrounding district.[31] In April 1949, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were united in the single municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo, and the lands of neighboring villages such as al-Shaykh Muwannis, Jammasin and Sumail, which had been depopulated during the war, were incorporated into the municipality.[32] Tel Aviv thus grew to Template:Convert. In 1949, a memorial to the 60 founders of Tel Aviv was constructed.[33] Over the past 60 years, Tel Aviv has developed into a secular, liberal-minded city with a vibrant nightlife and café culture.

On November 4, 1995, Israel's prime minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated at a rally in Tel Aviv in support of the Oslo peace accord. The outdoor plaza where this occurred, formerly known as Kikar Malchei Yisrael, was renamed Rabin Square.[9]

Local government

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Tel Aviv is governed by a 31-member city council elected for a four-year term in direct proportional elections.[34] All Israeli citizens over the age of 18 with at least one year of residence in Tel Aviv are eligible to vote in municipal elections. The municipality is responsible for social services, community programs, public infrastructure, urban planning, tourism and other local affairs.[35] Tel Aviv City Hall is located on Rabin Square. Ron Huldai is the current mayor of Tel Aviv, having been the in office since 1998.[34] The longest serving mayor of the city was Shlomo Lahat who was in office for 19 years, whilst the shortest serving, David Bloch was in office for just two years between 1925 and 1927.

Mayors

Geography

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Tel Aviv is located around Template:Coor dm on the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain, the historic land bridge between Europe, Africa, and Asia. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv is on land that used to be sand dunes and has relatively poor soil fertility.[36] The land has been flattened and has no important gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the Mediterranean coastline and the Yarkon River mouth.[37] Because of the expansion of Tel Aviv and the Gush Dan region, absolute borders between Tel Aviv and Jaffa and between the city's neighborhoods do not exist. The city is 60 kilometers (37 mi) northwest of Jerusalem and Template:Convert south of the northern port city of Haifa.[38] Neighboring cities and towns include Herzliya Pituah to the north, Herzliya and Ramat HaSharon to the north east, Ramat Gan, and Giv'atayim to the east, Holon to the south-east, and Bat Yam to the south.[39]

Climate

Tel Aviv has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers, warm springs and autumns, and cool, rainy winters (Köppen climate classification Csa). Humidity tends to be high year-round due to the city's proximity to the sea. In winter, temperatures seldom drop below Template:Convert and are usually between Template:Convert and Template:Convert; the city has not seen snow since 1950.[40] In summer the average is Template:Convert, and often daytime temperatures exceed Template:Convert; despite the high humidity, summer rain is virtually unknown. The average annual rainfall is Template:Convert, almost exclusively in winter.[41] Tel Aviv experiences on average more than 300 sunny days a year. The autumn and spring periods are short and appear to be shrinking because of climate change.[42]

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Districts

Template:See Tel Aviv is made up of nine districts that have formed naturally over the city's short history. The most notable of these is Jaffa, the ancient port city out of which Tel Aviv grew. This area is traditionally made up demographically of a greater percentage of Arabs, but recent gentrification is finding them replaced by a young professional population. Similar processes are occurring in nearby Neve Tzedek, the original Jewish neighborhood outside of Jaffa. Ramat Aviv, a neighborhood in the northern part of the city largely made up of luxury apartments, is currently undergoing extensive expansion and is set to absorb the beachfront property of Sde Dov Airport after its decommissioning.[43]

Historically, there has been a demographic split between the Ashkenazi and Europeans north of the city, including the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv, and the southern, more Middle-Eastern neighborhoods including Neve Tzedek and Florentin. Recently, however, gentrification and soaring real estate prices have reduced the divide.[44]

Architecture

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Apart having over 5,000 Bauhaus buildings, the largest concentration in the world, which have been declared protected landmarks, Tel Aviv [45][8][46][47] has become a hub of modern high-rise architecture due to the soaring price of real-estate. The Shalom Tower, Israel's first skyscraper, was built in Tel Aviv in 1965, and remained the country's tallest building until 1999. The Azrieli Center, composed of three buildings— one square, one triangular, and one circular—usurped that title. Since 2001, Israel's tallest building is the City Gate Tower in Ramat Gan. Recent additions to Tel Aviv's skyline are the Neve Tzedek Tower, Tzameret Towers, and YOO Towers designed by Phillipe Stark.[48]

Demographics

The city has a population of 384,600 spread over an area of Template:Convert (19.5 mi²), yielding a population density of 7,445 people per square kilometer (2,875 per square mile). According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of June 2006 Tel Aviv's population is growing at an annual rate of 0.9%. It consists of 91.8% Jews, 4.2% Arabs and 4.0% "other".[49] According to some estimates, about 50,000 unregistered foreign workers live in Tel Aviv. In south Tel Aviv, there are 30,000 to 40,000 construction workers from Eastern Europe and Turkey. Most foreign workers are from Asia (particularly, the Philippines and Thailand), and many others are from east Africa.[50] Compared with other Westernised cities, crime in Tel Aviv is relatively low.[51]

According to Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, the average income in the city is about 20% above the national average, and the unemployment rate is 6.9%.[52] The city maintains education standards above the national average; of its 12th-grade students, 64.4% are eligible for matriculation certificates, the qualification received by those finishing high school.[52] In the city, the age profile of the population is relvatively evenly spread, with 22.2% aged under 20, 18.5% aged 20–29, 24% aged 30–44, 16.2% aged between 45 and 59, and 19.1% older than 60.[53] The city has 200 known homeless people, most of whom are male immigrants between the ages of 40 and 50. A third of these are addicted to alcohol and a third to drugs, while a quarter are mentally ill.[54] Compared with other western cities, this is relatively low as a percentage of the population. In London, for example, 1.9% of the population are said to be homeless, while in Tel Aviv, they are 0.05% of the population.[55]

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Tel Aviv's population is young and growing.[56] In 2006, 22,000 people moved to the city, while only 18,500 left,[56] and many of the new families had young children. The population of Tel Aviv is expected to reach 450,000 by 2025; meanwhile, the average age of residents in the city fell from 35.8 in 1983 to 34 in 2008.[56] The population over age 65 stands at 14.6% compared with 19% in 1983.[56]

Religion

Despite its image as a secular city, Tel Aviv has some 500 synagogues, including historic buildings such as the Great Synagogue, established in the 1930s. One of Tel Aviv's famous landmarks is the mosque on the beachfront. Jaffa is home to a sizeable Muslim and Christian population. The number of churches has grown in recent years to accommodate the religious needs of diplomats and foreign workers.[57]

Economy

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Since Tel Aviv was built on sand dunes, farming was not profitable and maritime commerce was centered in Haifa and Ashdod. Instead, the city gradually developed as a center for scientific and technical research. In 1974, Intel opened its first overseas research and development operation in Israel, and Tel Aviv emerged as a high-tech center in the 1990s.[9]

The economy of Tel Aviv has developed dramatically over past decades. The city has been described as a flourishing technological center by Newsweek and a "miniature Los Angeles" by The Economist.[58][9] Many computer scientists, their numbers increased by immigration from the former Soviet Union since the early 1990s, live and work in Tel Aviv. The city was noted in 1998 by Newsweek to be one of the top 10 most technologically influential cities in the world, and since then hi-tech industry has grown further in the Tel Aviv area.[58] Its metropolitan area (including satellite cities such as Herzlia and Petah Tikva) is Israel's center of high-tech, sometimes referred to as Silicon Wadi.[58] Tel Aviv has been ranked as the most expensive city in the Middle East.[59]

Tel Aviv is home to the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE), Israel's only stock exchange, which since the 1990s has reached record heights.[60] It is home to many international headquarters of venture-capital firms, scientific research institutes, and high-tech companies, and it has factories that process chemicals, textiles, and food for export.[9] The city's cultural sites, architecture, and nightlife attract tourists, whose spending adds to the local economy.[61]

The Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) at Loughborough University has constructed an inventory of world cities based on their level of advanced producer services. The inventory lists Tel Aviv as having "strong evidence" of world city formation—the highest ranking for a Middle Eastern city with the exception of partly European Istanbul.[62]

Nine of the fifteen Israeli billionaires live in Israel; at least four live in Tel Aviv or its suburbs (according to Forbes).[63][64] According to Mercer, a human resources consulting firm based in New York, as of 2007 Tel Aviv is considered the most expensive city in the Middle East and the 17th most expensive in the world. It falls just short of New York City and Dublin and just ahead of Rome and Vienna.[65][66]

Education

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Tel Aviv is home to a large number of schools, colleges, and universities. As of 2006, 51,359 children were in education in Tel Aviv, of whom 8,977 are in municipal kindergartens, 23,573, in municipal elementary schools, and 18,809 in high schools.[52] 64.4% of students in the city are entitled to matriculation, over 5% higher than the national average.[52] 4,000 children are currently in first grade at schools in the city, although due to the increase in population size and increasing birth rate in the city, by 2012, this number is expected to reach 6,000.[56] As a result, 20 additional kindergarten classes will open in the next school year (2008-09) in the city, while additional classes will be added at schools in north Tel Aviv, and plans are being developed for a new elementary school in the area north of Sde Dov, as well as a new high school in north Tel Aviv.[56]

Tel Aviv is a center for higher education in Israel with two universities, Tel Aviv University, and Bar-Ilan University (with its campus in neighboring Ramat Gan). These two universities give a combined student population of Tel Aviv reaching well over 50,000, of whom a sizeable number are international students.[67][68] Tel Aviv University was founded in 1953 and is now the largest university in Israel with an excellent reputation internationally, especially for its physics, computer science, chemistry and linguistics departments, and is located in the Ramat Aviv neighborhood.[69][70] Bar-Ilan University was founded in 1955 and is in neighboring city of Ramat Gan.[71]

Culture

Tourism and recreation

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As a Mediterranean city, Tel Aviv attracts a variety of tourists. It has many museums, cultural sites, beaches, and streets and districts, and according to the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, it has 44 hotels with more than 5,800 rooms.[52]

Of its public parks and gardens, the largest is Yarkon Park. Gan Meir, named after the first mayor, Meir Dizengoff, is on King George Street. Seventeen percent of the city is covered in plants.[52] The city has many malls, such as the Dizengoff Center (Israel's first mall) and the Azrieli Center, as well as many hotels including the Crowne Plaza, Sheraton, Dan, and Hilton. It is home to many museums, architectural and cultural sites, and offers tours in different languages. A bus tour of the city was made available in 2007,[72] and the city also has architectural tours[73] and Segway tours[74] as well as walking tours of many varieties.[75] Tel Aviv is known for its openness, thriving night life, and around-the-clock culture.[76] The nightlife is particularly active around the beachfront promenades because of its many nightclubs and bars. The city is known in Israel as "The city that never sleeps".[76] The city also has a wide variety of restaurants offering both traditional Israeli food, and international style-food, many of which are world class. There are, for example over 100 sushi retaurants, the third highest concentration in the world, and an Italian restauarant in the city was deemed the best Italian restaurant outside of Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture.[8][77]

Arts and theater

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Tel Aviv is the cultural capital of Israel.[11] Eighteen of Israel's 35 major centers for the performing arts are there.[78] The Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center is the home of the Israeli Opera, where Plácido Domingo was house tenor between 1962 and 1965, and the Cameri Theater.[79] With 3,000 seats, the Fredric R. Mann Auditorium (Heichal Hatarbut) is the city's largest theater.[80] Habima Theater, Israel's national theater, was closed down for renovations in early 2008. Enav Cultural Center is one of the newer additions to the cultural scene .[78] Other theaters in Tel Aviv are the Gesher Theater and Beit Lessin Theater; Tzavta and Tmuna are smaller theaters that host musical performances and fringe productions. In Jaffa, the Simta and Notzar theaters specialize in fringe. Tel Aviv hosts the most live concerts by international performers of all the cities in the region.

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Tel Aviv is home to a number of dance centers and companies. The Batsheva Dance Company is Israel's most well known contemporary dance troupe. Bat Dor and the Israel Ballet are also headquartered in Tel Aviv.[78]

Opera and classical music performances are held in Tel Aviv on a daily basis.[78] Many of the world's leading classical conductors and soloists have performed to crowds in the city. Zubin Mehta, Itzhak Perlman, Leonard Bernstein, Isaac Stern, Lorin Maazel and Pinchas Zukerman (born in Tel Aviv) have all appeared on Tel Aviv stages.[78]

The Tel Aviv Cinemathèque screens art movies, premieres of short and full-length Israeli films, and hosts a variety of film festivals, among them the Festival of Animation, Comics and Caricatures, the Student Film Festival, the Jazz, Film and Videotape Festival and Salute to Israeli Cinema. The city has several multiplex cinemas.[78]

Museums

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Israel is claimed to have the highest number of museums per capita of any country, three of the largest of which are in Tel Aviv.[81][82][83] Among the most notable are the Eretz Israel Museum, known for its rich collection of archaeology and history exhibits dealing with the Land of Israel, and the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, one of the major art museums in Israel. Housed on the campus of Tel Aviv University is the Beth Hatefutsoth, a museum of the international Jewish diaspora. Containing both historical documents and art, the museum tells the story of Jewish prosperity and persecution throughout the centuries of exile. Batey Haosef Museum is a showcase of the Israel Defense Forces' military history, containing rare exhibits and authentic pieces from Israel's history as well as a wide variety of firearms and pictures. The Palmach Museum near Tel Aviv University gives visitors a multimedia experience of the history of the Palmach as well as vast archives depicting the lives of young self-trained Jewish soldiers who became Israel's first defenders. Near Charles Clore's garden in north Jaffa is a small museum of the Etzel Jewish militant organization, one of the achievements of which was conquering Jaffa for Israel in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Tel Aviv Exhibition Center in the northern part of the city hosts more than 60 major events every year. Many offbeat museums and galleries are in the city's artsy southern areas, including the Tel Aviv Raw Art contemporary art gallery.[84][85]

Sports

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Tel Aviv is home to some of the top sports teams in Israel, including a world-class basketball team. It is the only city with three teams in the Israeli football (soccer) premier league. Maccabi Tel Aviv Sports Club was founded in 1906 and competes in more than 10 sports. Its Maccabi Tel Aviv Basketball Club holds 47 Israeli titles, has won 36 editions of the Israel cup, and has five European Championships, and its Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C. holds 18 Israeli league titles and has won 22 editions of the Israel cup, two Israel Toto cups and two Asia cups. Yael Arad, an athlete in Maccabi's judo club, won a silver medal in the 1992 Olympic Games.[86]

Hapoel Tel Aviv Sports Club was founded in 1923 and has included more than 11 sports clubs[87] including the Hapoel Tel Aviv Basketball Club (five Israeli championships, four Israeli cups) and the Hapoel Tel Aviv Football Club (13 Israeli championships, 11 Israeli cups, one Toto cup and one Asia champion), a kayaking club, and a women's basketball club.

Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv's football club (once Israeli champion, twice Israeli cup holder and twice Israeli Toto cup holder) is the only Israeli football team in the top division (Ligat Ha'al) that represents a neighborhood—Shechunat Hatikva ("The Hope Neighborhood") in Tel Aviv—and not a city.

Other football clubs in the top division were Shimshon Tel Aviv and Beitar Tel Aviv, which has merged into one team, Beitar/Shimshon Tel Aviv, in the third division, Liga Artzit. Another former first division team, Maccabi Jaffa, played in the lower divisions in the 2007–08 season.

Two rowing clubs operate in Tel Aviv. The Tel Aviv Rowing Club, established as early as 1935 on the banks of the Yarkon River, is the largest rowing club in Israel.[88] Meanwhile, the beaches of Tel Aviv provide a vibrant Matkot (beach paddleball) scene.[89] Tel Aviv Lightning represent Tel Aviv in the Israel Baseball League.[90]

Transportation

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Many major routes of the national road network pass through or end in Tel Aviv, a transportation hub. The main road access route to Tel Aviv is the Ayalon Highway (Highway 20), which runs along the eastern side of the city from north to south along the Ayalon River riverbed, dividing for the most part Tel Aviv and Ramat Gan. Driving south on the Ayalon gives access to Highway 1, leading to Ben Gurion International Airport and Jerusalem. Within the city, the main routes are King George Street, Allenby Street, Ibn Gabirol Street, Dizengoff Street, Rothschild Boulevard, and in Jaffa the main route is Jerusalem Boulevard. Namir Road connects the city to Highway 2, Israel's main north–south highway, and Begin/Jabotinsky Road, which provides access from the east through Ramat Gan, Bnei Brak and Petah Tiqva. Tel Aviv, accommodating about 500,000 commuter cars daily, suffers from increasing congestion. In 2007, the Sadan Report recommended the introduction of a congestion charge similar to that of London in Tel Aviv as well as other Israeli cities. Under this plan, road users travelling into the city would pay a fixed fee.[91] Tel Aviv Municipality are trying to encourage the use of bicycles in the city, aiming to open 100 bicycle-rental stations to serve Template:Convert of bicycle paths. Plans call for expansion of the paths to Template:Convert by 2009.[92]

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Tel Aviv has four train stations along the Ayalon Highway. The stops are from north to south: Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv Merkaz, Tel Aviv Hashalom (near Azrieli Center shopping mall) and Tel Aviv Hahaganah (near the Tel Aviv Central Bus Station). It is estimated that more than a million people travel by train from the surrounding cities to Tel Aviv each month.

Tel-Aviv has two central bus stations: 'The old central bus station' and 'The new central bus station'. The new Tel Aviv Central Bus Station is in the south of the city. The main bus network in Tel Aviv is operated by Dan Bus Company; the Egged Bus Cooperative, the world's second-largest bus company, provides intercity transportation.[93]

Tel Aviv's domestic airport is Sde Dov in the northwestern part of the city. Sde Dov is slated to close because it occupies prime coastal real estate in the upscale Ramat Aviv neighborhood.[94] In the near future all services to Sde Dov will transfer to Ben Gurion International Airport, Israel's main international airport, close to the city of Lod and Template:Convert southeast of Tel Aviv. Because it is close to Tel Aviv, Ben Gurion International Airport is often referred to as Tel Aviv International Airport even though it is not part of any municipal jurisdiction.

In early 2008, Tel Aviv Municipality announced a pilot scheme to build charging stations for electric cars. Initially, five charging points will be built, and eventually 150 points will be set up across the city as part of the Israeli electric car project Better Place.[95] Furthermore, battery replacement points will be located at the city's entrances.

Media

The three largest newspapers in Israel are published in Tel Aviv. Tabloid Yedioth Ahronoth has been Israel's most widely circulated newspaper since the 1970s and is headquartered on Begin Road.[96] Maariv, Israel's second most popular tabloid, is also published in the city, while Haaretz, Israel's most popular broadsheet, is based in the city.[96] Tel Aviv also acts as the base for other national press including the evening financial newspaper Globes, the weekly newspaper HaTzofe, and the daily newspaper Makor Rishon.[96] Iton Tel Aviv reports local news.[96] More recently, the free daily Israel Post and Israeli have been produced in the city. Several radio stations cover the Tel Aviv area, including the city-based Radio Tel Aviv.[97]

Terrorism

Tel Aviv has suffered from violence and terrorism by Palestinian militant groups for many years. The first suicide attack in Tel Aviv occurred on October 19, 1994, on the Line 5 bus, when a bomber killed himself and 21 civilians as part of a Hamas suicide campaign. This was followed on March 4, 1996, during Purim holiday festivities by a suicide bombing that killed 18 civilians near an automated teller machine (ATM) at the Dizengoff Center. Оn June 1, 2001, during the Second Intifada, a suicide bomb exploded inside a nightclub called the Dolphi Disco, and 21 were killed and more than 100 were injured. Twenty people were killed on January 25, 2002, in a suicide attack near the old Central Bus Station, and on January 5, 2003, in two nearly simultaneous attacks, 23 were killed. On April 17, 2006, 10 people, many of them foreign laborers, were killed and dozens wounded in another suicide attack in the same location.[98]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics estimate as of the end of 2006-06-01 (2005-07-01). Table 3.- Population(1) of localities numbering over 1,000 (PDF). CBS. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  2. Tel Aviv is commonly written in Hebrew without the hyphen (תל אביב).
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